Crime and Social Control

Crime and Social Control

  • Dinzey-Flores, Zaire

    • Portrait
    • Zaire Dinzey-Flores
    • Associate Professor
    • PhD. University of Michigan, 2005
    • Email: zdinzey@rutgers.edu
    • Office: Davison Hall, 119
    • Curriculum Vitae
    • Associate Professor in Latino and Hispanic Caribbean Studies and Sociology, teaches courses on urbanism, Caribbean societies and development, race and ethnicity, and research methods. Her research interests are in the areas of urbanism, space and place, the built environment, race and ethnicity, social inequality, mixed-method research, criminal justice, Latin America and Caribbean Studies, and African Diaspora. Dinzey-Flores' research focuses on understanding how urban space mediates community life and race, class, and social inequality. She uses an interdisciplinary lens (sociology, urban planning, public policy), mixed-method approaches, and often a comparative Caribbean-U.S. framework, to investigate the processes that cement the built environment and unequally distribute power. She is particularly interested in housing and urban residential (housing and neighborhood) design: the underlying logics and policies that drive design, how design is interpreted, used, and experienced, and the consequences for inequality among communities and residents of cities.

      Her book, Locked In, Locked Out: Gated Communities in a Puerto Rican City (University Of Pennsylvania Press: 2013), winner of the 2014 Robert E. Park Award of the Community and Urban Sociology Section (CUSS) of the American Sociological Association and an Honorable Mention of the 2014 Frank Bonilla Book Award of the Puerto Rican Studies Association, examines race and class inequality as they are recreated, contained, and negotiated through urban policy, the physical built environment, and community gates in private and public housing.

      Dinzey-Flores is currently working on a number of projects: the first is a mixed-method examination of how race is articulated in residential real estate practices in demographically changing neighborhoods in Brooklyn, NY; the second, looks at the transatlantic circulation of housing planning and design ideals in the middle of the 20th Century. She is also collaborating on a mobile data project with department and university colleagues seeking to understand racial segregation as it occurs in motion and a mixed-media project on construction in the Caribbean.

  • Friedman, Brittany

    • Portrait
    • Brittany Friedman
    • Assistant Professor
    • Ph.D., Northwestern University in 2018
    • Email: bmf94@rutgers.edu
    • Office: Davison Hall 043
    • Website: https://www.brittanyfriedman.com/
    • Brittany Friedman is an Assistant Professor of Sociology and Faculty Affiliate of the Program in Criminal Justice and the Center for Security, Race, and Rights at Rutgers University. She is a 2019 Fellow of the Racial, Democracy, Crime and Justice Network (RDCJN). Friedman holds a Ph.D. in Sociology from Northwestern University and researches race and prison order, penal policy, and the intersections between institutions and monetary sanctions in the criminal justice system. Her first book, Born in Blood: Death Work, White Power, and the Rise of the Black Guerilla Family (under contract, The University of North Carolina Press JPP Series), traces the institutionalization of control strategies designed to eradicate Black political protest and the resulting consequences for the prison social system. The research is supported by the National Science Foundation, the American Society of Criminology, and the Kellogg School of Management.

      Friedman is a member of the Multi-State Study of Monetary Sanctions, researching how monetary sanctions in the criminal justice system impact reentry, racial inequality, and poverty.

      With April Fernandes and Gabriela Kirk, she is Co-PI of a comparative study of inmate reimbursement practices, also known as “pay-to-stay.” Their funded project expands the study of monetary sanctions to include empirical analyses of pay-to-stay as revenue generation.

  • Hirschfield, Paul

    • Portrait
    • Paul Hirschfield
    • Associate Professor
    • Ph.D. Northwestern University, 2003
    • Email: phirschfield@sociology.rutgers.edu
    • Office: Davison Hall, 038
    • Curriculum Vitae
    • Associate Professor of Sociology and faculty affiliate of the Criminal Justice Program, teaches criminology, punishment and social control, and juvenile justice. His theoretical and empirical work focuses on social control and criminalization in relation to schools and policing. His current research centers on the expansion of positive and restorative alternatives to exclusionary discipline and school-based arrests and the organizational and legal control of deadly force by police.

      Professor Hirschfield has focused on the causes and consequences of intensified surveillance and criminalization, especially of youth.  His past research focused on the impact of juvenile arrests on educational attainment and educational inequality, as well policies and programs that facilitate the transition from correctional to community educational settings. In recent years, he has shifted his focus from criminalization to de-criminalization and non-criminalization.  With respect to de-criminalization, he has written on the expansion of positive and restorative alternatives to exclusionary discipline and school-based arrests.  With respect to non-criminalization, he is currently studying the social, political, and legal dynamics that explain why on-duty police violence rarely leads to criminal charges.

      Dr. Hirschfield has applied qualitative and quantitative methods to various other theory- and policy-driven research projects. He participated in separate experimental evaluations of the impact of the Moving to Opportunity program and the Comer School Development Program on rates of juvenile court involvement. With support from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (U.S. Department of Justice) and the Spencer Foundation, Hirschfield conducted a study of the impact of mainstream and alternative school re-enrollment on the reentry success of young ex-offenders in New York City. His work has appeared in Criminology, Sociology of Education, Theoretical Criminology, American Educational Research Journal, Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, and elsewhere.

  • Krivo, Lauren J.

    • Portrait
    • Lauren J. Krivo
    • Professor
    • Ph.D. University of Texas, 1984
    • Email: lkrivo@sociology.rutgers.edu
    • Office: Davison Hall, 111
    • Curriculum Vitae
    • Lauren Krivo is Professor of Sociology at Rutgers University and a faculty affiliate of the Program in Criminal Justice.  Her research seeks to understand the interconnections among societal racialized structures, changing social structural conditions, and inequality in crime, violence and other outcomes across racial and ethnic groups in the United States.  Her book with Ruth D. Peterson, Divergent Social Worlds: Neighborhood Crime and the Racial-Spatial Divide (Russell Sage 2010) shows that inequalities in crime across neighborhoods of distinct colors are rooted in the extraordinary differentials in community conditions that are core components of segregation within U.S. urban areas.  

      She is currently analyzing the second wave of the National Neighborhood Crime Study (NNCS2) which she collected with María B. Vélez and Christopher J. Lyons.  The NNCS2 provide the only national panel data on crime in neighborhoods across the United States.  The first articles from this project show (1) an increase in the relative crime gap between African American and other ethno-racial neighborhoods; and (2) unanticipated increases in violent and property crime in that are largely limited to a subset of Black neighborhoods. These changes are the products of racialized differences in neighborhood economic and housing instability leading up to and following the Great Recession. 

      She has published widely on the role of segregation in city and neighborhood crime as well as contributing to broader academic dialogue on race, ethnicity, crime, and justice through her co-edited volumes:  The Many Colors of Crime:  Inequalities of Race, Ethnicity and Crime in America (with Ruth D. Peterson and John Hagan, NYU Press 2006), “Race, Crime, and Justice: Contexts and Complexities”  The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, May 2009 (with Ruth D. Peterson), and “Color Matters: Race, Ethnicity, Crime, and Justice in Uncertain Times”, Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race, Spring 2018 (with Ruth D. Peterson and Kathryn Russell-Brown). 

      Krivo is the co-founder of the Racial Democracy, Crime and Justice Network (RDCJN) with Ruth D. Peterson.  The RDCJN is a national network of scholars that seeks to broaden scholarship at the intersection of race, crime, and justice, and promotes the success of junior scholars of color through its Summer Research Institute. The RDCJN is currently headed by Rod Brunson (Northeastern University) and Jody Miller (Rutgers University-Newark). 

      Krivo was the Principal Investigator for the National Science Foundation funded project “EAGER: Developing an Application for Assessing Respondent Experiences of Their Surroundings in Real Time” (SES-1520778) with co-PIs Zaire Dinzey-Flores, Janne Lindqvist, and Hana Shepherd. The software code developed in the project for an in-person tablet-based survey and an application for use on mobile devices (app) to collect GPS location data, ecological momentary assessment (EMA) surveys, and implicit association test (IAT) results is available at the following location: 

      NSF1520778, EAGER: Developing an Application for Assessing Respondent Experiences of Their Surroundings in Real Time 

  • Phillips, Julie

    • Portrait
    • Julie Phillips
    • Professor and Department Chair
    • Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania, 1998
    • Email: julie.phillips@rutgers.edu
    • Office: Davison Hall, 101C
    • Curriculum Vitae
    • Julie Phillips, professor and chair of Sociology, is a social demographer who studies how structural and cultural features of society influence behavior and produce inequality.  Most of her work has focused on lethal violence as an outcome of interest.  Her current research agenda examines possible explanations for the sharp increases in U.S. suicide rates since 2000.  With funding from the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention (AFSP), she has explored how and why patterns of U.S. suicide rates vary across place, time, and demographic groups, with particular attention to the role of rising antidepressant drug usage rates among other demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral factors. A related project, also funded by AFSP, investigates varying patterns of suicide risk across the life course, time period, and birth cohort, with an emphasis on understanding the rising rates of suicide among middle-aged Baby Boomers. Other work in this area include studies of the role of immigration in affecting rates of lethal violence (with Lauren Krivo) and of circumstances and method of suicide using data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (with Katherine Hempstead).  Her work brings to the fore the social elements of suicide, showing that even the most individualist and intimate behaviors are products of the society we inhabit.

      Prior research has focused on violent crime, namely homicide. With a grant from the National Science Foundation, Dr. Phillips examined reasons for temporal and spatial variation in U.S. homicide rates. Her other research on crime investigated the reasons for racial and ethnic differences in levels of violence in the United States. Other work (with Dr. Megan Sweeney, UCLA) explored reasons for racial and ethnic differences in levels of divorce in the United States and possible explanations for race and gender differences in various mental health problems (with Dr. Sarah Rosenfield)

  • Shepherd, Hana

    • Portrait
    • Hana Shepherd
    • Assistant Professor
    • Ph.D. Princeton University, 2011
    • Email: hshepherd@sociology.rutgers.edu
    • Office: Davison Hall, 037
    • Curriculum Vitae
    • Assistant Professor of Sociology. Shepherd teaches classes in interventions and social change, organizations, and culture. She studies how social networks, social norms and group processes, culture, and organizations facilitate or impede social change. She is currently working on a series of projects on the enforcement of local labor law, and on social networks and low-wage work.

      Hana Shepherd's work focuses on three areas.

      • Social Networks, Norms, and Group Cultures

      Shepherd’s research examines how people perceive the social norms operating in their social groups, the effects of those perceptions on behavior, and how norm perceptions are shaped by social networks. She is interested in social norms as a central element of culture as they shape larger patterns of behavior in groups.

      As part of this work, Shepherd co-directed a year-long field experiment in 56 middle schools in New Jersey. Evidence of the effect of the intervention program on students' perceived norms of social conflict and on student behavior can be found in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences here. The program curriculum can be found here. Shepherd uses the dataset from this project (three types of network relations at two time points during the year for over 21,000 students) for a number of projects including the relationship between network structure and norm perceptions in schools, the adoption of different social media platforms (in Social Science Research with Jeff Lane), and the role of conflict in shaping social status in schools (with Laura Callejas).

      Her new work examines the formation and effects of network ties among low-wage workers.

      • · Cognitive and Social Psychological Accounts of Culture

      Shepherd uses tools from social and cognitive psychology, survey experiments, and other analytical methods to investigate the processes of culture and cognition. With Rutgers colleagues, she has studied the experiences of mobile segregation using implicit cognition measures.

      • · The Relationship between Organizations and Inequality

      Shepherd is co-PI with Janice Fine on a project funded by the Russell Sage Foundation examining how city agencies interpret and enforce local labor laws. She has also examined variation among organizations in how they implement new laws, using the case of schools and the NJ Anti-Bullying Bill of Rights. Her previous work in this area examines elites and foreign policy knowledge, racial discrimination, and classification in the World Bank.

      Shepherd uses diverse methods including network analysis, lab and field-based experiments, interviews, and archival research. She is particularly interested in various attempts at social change including social engineering, social movements, utopian scheming, and policy. Prior to joining the department, Professor Shepherd was a postdoctoral associate and lecturer at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs and the Department of Psychology at Princeton University.

  • White, Helene Raskin

    • Portrait
    • Helene Raskin White
    • Professor
    • Ph.D. Rutgers University, 1976
    • Email: hewhite@smithers.rutgers.edu
    • Office: Alcohol Studies
    • Phone: 732-445-3579
    • Curriculum Vitae
    • Distinguished Professor in the Sociology Department and the Center of Alcohol Studies.  Her research focuses on the comorbidity of substance use, crime, violence, and mental health problems in community and high-risk samples. She also evaluates drug prevention interventions for college students.

      Dr. White is currently engaged in longitudinal research on the antecedents, consequences and comorbidity of substance use and other problem behaviors in both community and high-risk samples. In addition, Dr. White develops and evaluates substance use prevention programs for college students. Her research has been sponsored by federal and foundation grants for the past 40 years. Dr. White has published one co-authored book, co-edited three books, and published more than 200 articles and chapters. She has served as a consultant for the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the National Institute of Justice, the National Science Foundation, and the Centers for Substance Abuse Prevention. Dr. White organized the founding of the Section on Alcohol, Drugs and Tobacco of the American Sociological Association and was chair of that section twice. Currently Dr. White serves on several journal Editorial Boards and Advisory Boards of major longitudinal studies and regularly reviewers grants for various National Institutes of Health study sections. Dr. White has taught an undergraduate course on alcohol problems in the Sociology Department. She is located at the Center of Alcohol Studies, Piscataway.